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[OPINION] Fahrenheit 451 (2018)

[OPINION] Fahrenheit 451 (2018)

En febrero de 1993, 40 años después de la publicación original de Fahrenheit 541, en la revista Playboy en 1953, Ray Bradbury escribió un posfacio de su obra donde comentó lo siguiente:

«Sólo resta mencionar una predicción de mi bombero jefe, Beatty, hizo en 1953, en medio de mi libro. Se refería a la posibilidad de quemar libros sin cerillas ni fuego. Porque no hace falta quemar libros si el mundo empieza a llenarse de gente que no lee, que no aprende, que no sabe. Si el baloncesto y el fútbol inundan  el mundo a través de MTV, no se necesitan Beattys que prendan fuego al queroseno o persigan al lector. Si la enseñanza primaria se disuelve y desaparece a través de las grietas y la ventilación de la clase, ¿quién, después de un tiempo, lo sabrá, o a quién le importará?” (2016)

Las amenazas proferidas en 1953 están acorde al contexto en el que fue producida la obra, pero con el pasar de los años el avance tecnológico produjo que el máximo enemigo de los libros no estuviera en las llamas, sino en la tecnología (la televisión principalmente), que intentaría desplazarlo en primer momento. Es a esto a lo que hace referencia Bradbury en 1993, donde veía que los medios de comunicación masiva alejaban a la gente de la cultura y los libros, sin la necesidad de ser quemados, perdían su poder.

Este 2018 la división de películas televisivas de HBO decidió producir una adaptación del libro del autor estadounidense, siendo esta la segunda vez que la obra se llevaba al formato cinematográfico, ya que en 1966 François Truffaut estuvo a cargo de la cinta.

La película es protagonizada, además de producida, por Michael B. Jordan (Adonis Johnson  en Creed, Killmonger en Black Panther) en el papel de Montag, el capitán Beatty es interpretado por Michael Shannon (Zod en Man of Steel, Bobby Andes en Nocturnal Animals) y como Clarisse: Sofia Boutella (Ahmanet en The Mummy). La producción se encuentra bajo la dirección de Ramin Bahrani quien dirigió Goodbye Solo, Plastic Bag y Chop Shop.

Hoy el contexto es distinto al que se vivía al momento de ser publicado el libro o la antigua adaptación cinematográfica. A pesar de la amenaza que significó la televisión para la lectura y escritura durante los años 70 hasta finales de los 90, la llegada de los computadores a los hogares, los Smartphone y el Internet masivo, cambiaron el panorama del mundo. Aunque parezca extremo algunos autores creen que la llegada del computador (y en especial que este tuviera teclado) salvó la escritura como medio de comunicación, ya que cambió el paradigma de la imagen que imponía la televisión.

Gracias a Internet y el aumento en las tecnologías de almacenamiento de información, nos sentimos lejos de que las ideas de un libro se puedan perder en las llamas para siempre, sin que este pueda volver a ser reproducido. En este contexto Fahrenheit 451 (2018), película producida por HBO, intenta hacer una “actualización” de la historia, haciéndola verosímil a nuestros tiempos. Los bomberos no sólo queman libros, ahora también destruyen todo lo que signifique una producción cultural: libros, películas, música, etc. Todo a la hoguera.

La comunión que se ha formado entre la informática y la cultura, nos hace cuestionar si realmente sería posible omitir absolutamente todo. Pero la tecnología trae en una mano el escudo de la salvación y en el otro la espada de la destrucción de la cultura. Las redes sociales, el impulso del YO, la proyección de la autoimagen, la vigilancia constante y el individualismo son parte de las amenazas que nos trae y vemos como en la producción de HBO se ve maximizado, para transformarse en el gran enemigo de la cultura.

Otra actualización que hace esta versión tiene que ver con un punto de relaciones interpersonales, ¿dónde está Mildred (la esposa de Montag)? Este personaje fue omitido. Si bien durante el siglo pasado uno de los tópicos comunes era la falta de comunicación entre las personas y como las parejas de muchos años no sabían con quién estaban casados, tema recurrente en el teatro absurdo, hoy parece que la mayor amenaza no es no conocer a la persona con la que vives, ahora la amenaza es que no se den esas relaciones y que el lugar de la pareja sea cubierto por un robot, una tecnología, una cámara, por Yuxie.

Yuxie debe ser uno de los puntos más fuertes de la película en su afán por hacernos verosímil esta realidad, las cámaras en todos los hogares, que no nos impusieron como en el 1984, sino que la misma masa exigió. Las emociones que nos entregaba una persona son reemplazadas por las reacciones que nos llegan a través de una pantalla.

A modo general, la calidad como producto audiovisual de la película no es buena, posee una gran cantidad de falencias a nivel de guion y actuación, pero sin dudas es interesante revisar el tema que una vez en 1953 propuso Bradbury sobre la extinción de los libros, sin dudas hoy nos vemos enfrentados a este de una manera metafórica, ya que si bien físicamente los libros puedan bajar su producción, sus versiones digitales lo hacer perdurar. Pero la amenaza de ser quemados con o sin fuego continúa, ya que esto no depende de los avances tecnológicos, sino de la educación que se le entrega a la sociedad.

Sin duda es una película que le puede interesar a un seguidor de la ciencia ficción o de Bradbury, si bien sus fallos narrativos son muchos, existe un trabajo profundo, una creación de mundo que no se puede pasar por alto, para que observes algunos detalles como NEL realizamos la siguientes preguntas: ¿Viste cómo era la bandera de estados unidos? ¿viste cómo ha evolucionado la forma de escritura? ¿Ya está Yuxie entre nosotros?

About The Author

Juanfer

Estudiante. Audiovisual, aficionado al mundo del cine y las series. Senegal. Siempre tipo planta. Intento releer a los clásicos, estar al día con los cómics y tomar agüita de la llave.

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